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Updated in 1/18/2017 10:41:55 PM      Viewed: 724 times      (Journal Article)
Annals of surgery 186 (3): 343-55 (1977)

Renal decapsulation in the prevention of post-ischemic oliguria.

H H Stone , J T Fulenwider
The delayed onset of anuria/oliguria in acute tubular necrosis has been theorized to represent a complicating compartment syndrome, i.e., parenchymal swelling within an unyielding capsule. To test this proposition, 12 monkeys had suprarenal aortic cross-clamping, followed by unilateral renal decapsulation to create an experimental as well as a control kidney unit in the same animal. Histologic examination uniformly confirmed tubular necrosis at death or sacrifice. Subsequent split renal function studies (creatinine, urea, and free water clearances) indicated significantly greater maintenance of renal function by the decapsulated kidney than by its paired control. Clinical evaluation in 21 hemorrhagic shock patients, with the capsule of one kidney stripped, revealed on follow-up that 15 developed a renal failure consistent with acute tubular necrosis. Although three patients with polyuric failure died before split studies could be run and two others have been too recent for computer analysis to have been completed, nine of the remaining ten had significantly greater renal plasma flows (194 versus 121 ml/min M(2), p < .01) and significantly greater urine flows (.99 versus .18 ml/min M(2), p < .01) on the decapsulated side than on the control, as determined by differential renal scans. No significant difference in these same lateralized renal functions was noted in the tenth patient with renal failure and in the six survivors without renal failure. Renal decapsulation as prophylaxis reduced the anticipated incidence of oliguria/anuria from an expected 75% to 7% (p < .01) in these 21 shock patients. Such data suggest that delayed renal ischemia, possibly based on a compartment syndrome, may be the cause for a progression of acute tubular necrosis from polyuria to oliguria and then to anuria.
ISSN: 0003-4932