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Updated in 1/18/2017 10:41:50 PM      Viewed: 722 times      (Journal Article)
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN 26 (12): 3035-44 (2015)

Reduction of Tubular Flow Rate as a Mechanism of Oliguria in the Early Phase of Endotoxemia Revealed by Intravital Imaging.

Daisuke Nakano , Kent Doi , Hiroaki Kitamura , Takashige Kuwabara , Kiyoshi Mori , Masashi Mukoyama , Akira Nishiyama
Urine output is widely used as a criterion for the diagnosis of AKI. Although several potential mechanisms of septic AKI have been identified, regulation of urine flow after glomerular filtration has not been evaluated. This study evaluated changes in urine flow in mice with septic AKI. The intratubular urine flow rate was monitored in real time by intravital imaging using two-photon laser microscopy. The tubular flow rate, as measured by freely filtered dye (FITC-inulin or Lucifer yellow), time-dependently declined after LPS injection. At 2 hours, the tubular flow rate was slower in mice injected with LPS than in mice injected with saline, whereas BP and GFR were similar in the two groups. Importantly, fluorophore-conjugated LPS selectively accumulated in the proximal tubules that showed reduced tubular flow at 2 hours and luminal obstruction with cell swelling at 24 hours. Delipidation of LPS or deletion of Toll-like receptor 4 in mice abolished these effects, whereas neutralization of TNF-α had little effect on LPS-induced tubular flow retention. Rapid intravenous fluid resuscitation within 6 hours improved the tubular flow rate only when accompanied by the dilation of obstructed proximal tubules with accumulated LPS. These findings suggest that LPS reduces the intratubular urine flow rate during early phases of endotoxemia through a Toll-like receptor 4-dependent mechanism, and that the efficacy of fluid resuscitation may depend on the response of tubules with LPS accumulation.
DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2014060577      ISSN: 1046-6673