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Updated in 1/17/2017 5:40:55 PM      Viewed: 732 times      (Journal Article)
Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthesie 63 (6): 664-73 (2016)

The effect of continuous hypertonic saline infusion and hypernatremia on mortality in patients with severe traumatic brain injury: a retrospective cohort study.

Sean K R Tan , Leif Kolmodin , Mypinder S Sekhon , Lu Qiao , Jie Zou , William R Henderson , Donald E G Griesdale
ABSTRACT
Hypertonic saline (HTS) is used to control intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, in prior studies, the resultant hypernatremia has been associated with increased mortality. We aimed to study the effect of HTS on ICP and mortality in patients with severe TBI.We performed a retrospective cohort study of 231 patients with severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] ≤ 8) admitted to two neurotrauma units from 2006-2012. We recorded daily HTS, ICP, and serum sodium (Na) concentration. We used Cox proportional regression modelling for hospital mortality and incorporated the following time-dependent variables: use of HTS, hypernatremia, and desmopressin administration.The mean [standard deviation (SD)] age of patients was 34 (17) and the median (interquartile range [IQR]) GCS was 6 [3-8]. Hypertonic saline was administered as a continuous infusion in 124 of 231 (54%) patients over 788 of 2,968 (27%) patient-days. Hypernatremia (Na > 145 mmol·L(-1)) developed in 151 of 231 (65%) patients over 717 of 2,968 (24%) patients-days. In patients who developed hypernatremia, the median [IQR] Na was 146 [142-147] mmol·L(-1). Overall hospital mortality was 26% (59 of 231 patients). After adjusting for baseline covariates, neither HTS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56 to 2.05; P = 0.84) nor hypernatremia (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.68 to 2.55; P = 0.42) was associated with hospital mortality. There was no effect modification by either HTS or hypernatremia on each another. Patients who received HTS observed a significant decrease in ICP during their ICU stay compared with those who did not receive HTS (4 mmHg; 95% CI, 2 to 6; P < 0.001 vs 2 mmHg; 95% CI, -1 to 5; P = 0.14).Hypertonic saline and hypernatremia are not associated with hospital mortality in patients with severe TBI.
DOI: 10.1007/s12630-016-0633-y      ISSN: 0832-610X