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Updated in 7/15/2018 2:03:10 AM      Viewed: 248 times      (Journal Article)
BioMed research international 2016: 6492597 (2016)

Achilles Tendinopathy: Current Concepts about the Basic Science and Clinical Treatments.

Hong-Yun Li , Ying-Hui Hua
ABSTRACT
Achilles tendinopathy is one of the most frequently ankle and foot overuse injuries, which is a clinical syndrome characterized by the combination of pain, swelling, and impaired performance. The two main categories of Achilles tendinopathy are classified according to anatomical location and broadly include insertional and noninsertional tendinopathy. The etiology of Achilles tendinopathy is multifactorial including both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Failed healing response and degenerative changes were found in the tendon. The failed healing response includes three different and continuous stages (reactive tendinopathy, tendon disrepair, and degenerative tendinopathy). The histological studies have demonstrated an increased number of tenocytes and concentration of glycosaminoglycans in the ground substance, disorganization and fragmentation of the collagen, and neovascularization. There are variable conservative and surgical treatment options for Achilles tendinopathy. However, there has not been a gold standard of these treatments because of the controversial clinical results between various studies. In the future, new level I researches will be needed to prove the effect of these treatment options.
DOI: 10.1155/2016/6492597      ISSN: 2314-6133